2015), and Orius feed on larvae in field raspberries (Walsh et al. Immediately spray an insecticide unless the plants are blooming. Thus, this article reviews over 75 publications and provides summary tables on the performance of predators, parasitoids, and pathogens (fungi, nematodes, bacteria, and viruses), and competitors tested against spotted-wing drosophila. Rossi Stacconi, M. V., N. Amiresmaeili, A. Biondi, C. Carli, S. Caruso, M. L. Dindo, S. Francati, A. Gottardello, A. Grassi, D. Lupi, et al. As each natural enemy is covered, we address the impact observed in the field (i.e., predation rate), efficacy of commercial products available, and other options that may be available in the future. Sometimes, infection of spotted-wing drosophila larvae was more successful than similar trials with spotted-wing drosophila pupae possibly because nematodes have difficulty penetrating pupae (Garriga et al. If you have help harvesting your fruit, you can give your helpers two buckets. Biondi, A., X. G. Wang, J. C. Miller, B. Miller, P. W. Shearer, L. Zappala, G. Siscaro, V. W. Walton, K. A. Hoelmer, and K. M. Daane. Son, V. M. Walton, B. N. Hogg, and K. M. Daane. 2017, Shaw et al. Spotted wing drosophila pupating on the surface of a cherry. Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a nuisance fly often attacking damaged, dropped, or overripe fruit, as it has a higher ethanol tolerance than spotted-wing drosophila (Gao et al. Drosophila in Sweden; Citizen Science; Pest control; Sexual behavior; Microorganisms; Fruit; News; Contact Us; English. Four of the major D. suzukii parasitoids are shown attacking spotted-wing drosophila on blueberry, including two cosmopolitan pupal parasitoids (A) Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae and (B) Trichopria drosophilae and two Asian larval parasitoids (C) Ganaspis brasiliensis and (D) Leptopilina japonica japonica, photos by K. M. Daane. Ripe fruit serve as strong attractants for SWD. 2017). Cossentine, J., M. Robertson, and R. Buitenhuis. 2015), while another study found lowered reproduction with Wolbachia infection (Hamm et al. Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is a fruit fly first found in 2008 damaging fruit in many California counties.It infests ripening cherries throughout the state and ripening raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, and strawberry crops, especially in coastal areas. 2018a,b; Wang et al. Drosophila suzukii have a rapid expansion worldwide; occurrences were recorded in North America and Europe in 2008, and South America in 2013. The SWD is difficult to control under any conditions, and even more so for organic growers. Second, fungal sprays in the field will be less concentrated and subject to quicker degradation. 2015). Several major universities had long focused on organic control methods for the SWD. Lanouette, G., J. Brodeur, F. Fournier, V. Martel, M. Vreysen, C. Cáceres, and A. Firlej. Parasitoids play an important role in the regulation of some Drosophila populations, with reported levels of parasitism as high as 80–100% (e.g., Janssen et al. Cattel, J., R. Kaur, P. Gibert, J. Martinez, A. Fraimout, F. Jiggins, T. Andrieux, S. Siozios, G. Anfora, W. Miller, et al. 2015-51300-24154 and 2018-51300-28434, USDA Specialty Crops Research Initiative under agreement no. Insecticides and rates used in small plot trials for control of Drosophila suzukii in 2012 and in program comparisons at commercial blueberry farms in 2011 and 2012. Carrau, T., N. Hiebert, A. Vilcinskas, and K. Z. Lee. Ceden, C. J., D. A. Rutz, J. G. Scott, and S. J. Cuthbertson, A. G., L. F. Blackburn, and N. Audsley. Ideal parasitoids are host-specific, so their introduction will not impact other nontarget species that could be important to an ecosystem. 2011). 2018). Schetelig, M. F., K. Z. Lee, S. Otto, L. Talmann, J. Stökl, T. Degenkolb, A. Vilcinskas, and R. Halitschke. 2011, Van Timmeren and Isaacs 2013), but is acutely toxic to beneficial insects under greenhouse conditions (Biondi et al. During the year 2012 its presence was detected in Andalucía, specifically in the provinces of Jaén, Almería and Huelva. Tait, G., C. Kaiser, M. V. Rossi Stacconi, D. T. Dalton, G. Anfora, and V. M. Walton. For example, 1,000 D. coriaria rove beetles currently cost US$75, costing $750/ha ($304/acre) to release 1 beetle per 1 m3 (Evergreen Growers Supply 2019). Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook-- This handbook is updated annually and provides control recommendations for a wide range of agricultural pests.
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